Thursday, October 18, 2018

The Kremlin's Campaign in Africa

By Nataliya Bugayova with Jack Ulses and Chase Johnson

Key Takeaway: The Kremlin is expanding its outreach and influence in Africa. Russia is boosting its military sales and economic cooperation across Africa, entering the continent’s emerging nuclear energy market and expanding its access to mineral resources and sites for naval basing. The expansion in outreach followed a tour of five states in Africa by Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in March 2018. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov, Russian National Security Council Secretary Nikolai Patrushev, and the heads of a number of state-owned enterprises are leading the push by Russia into Africa. Although Russia’s ambitions are primarily economic at this time, the Kremlin is adept at converting economic leverage into political gains. The U.S. should closely monitor these developments due to the growing strategic importance of Africa, the expansion into Africa by China, and the broader campaign by the Kremlin to undermine the U.S. globally.

This initial assessment examines the Kremlin’s objectives in Africa, the timing and the focus of its activities, and their implications for the U.S

The Kremlin is pursuing economic objectives with geostrategic implications in Africa. Russia primarily seeks access to resources, new markets, shipping routes, and additional naval basing in Africa. These efforts fit within its goal to establish a new multipolar world order. The Kremlin aims to counterbalance both the U.S. and China in Africa. It also likely aims to keep pace with other regional actors investing in Africa including Turkey and the Gulf States. Russia also intends to generate influence over powerbrokers that it can convert into political gains, including support from the African voting bloc in the United Nations.

The Kremlin’s campaign in Africa is driven by both opportunity and necessity. Russia likely perceives a ripe opportunity in Africa amidst a drawdown in economic support by the U.S. and Europe. The Kremlin nonetheless cannot compete with the volume of foreign aid from the U.S. or investment from China. Russia is instead focusing on its comparative advantage in certain sectors valued by local powerbrokers including energy, mineral resource exploitation, and weapons as well as growth markets in agriculture, nuclear energy, and hydrology.[1] The Kremlin could use these potential revenue streams to mitigate the negative economic effects of sanctions and diversify away from its long-term dependence on oil. Russia is managing its expansion into Africa by leveraging relationships, networks, and expertise dating to the former Soviet Union. It is also exploiting its increased influence and infrastructure in the Middle East and North Africa.

The Kremlin is pursuing several simultaneous lines of effort in Africa:

1. The Kremlin is attempting to secure military basing in Africa. Russia holds a long-standing goal to secure additional strategic basing as warned by ISW in March 2017.[2] The Kremlin seeks basing in Africa in order secure access to key trade routes and further project its military and economic power. The Kremlin may ultimately intend to contest access to maritime chokepoints in the Suez Canal and the Bab al-Mandab Strait. Russia announced plans to build a naval logistics center in Eritrea on August 31.[3] The facility would overlook major shipping routes through the Red Sea. The Russian Foreign Ministry is now pushing for sanctions relief for Eritrea in a likely bid to facilitate its operations in the country and encourage further concessions to Moscow.[4] Russia similarly discussed building a naval supply center in Sudan as recently as June 2018.[5] The Kremlin may also be pursuing a naval base in Somaliland on the Horn of Africa.[6] Moreover, a Russian Defense Ministry source stated in July 2018 that Russian PMCs were being used as security for a Russian base under construction in Burundi.[7] In North Africa, Russia likely holds basing aspirations in Egypt and Libya.[8] The Kremlin could ultimately intend to use former bases in Eastern Libya as part of a bid to control migrant routes to Europe.[9]

2. The Kremlin is trying to capture the emerging nuclear energy market in Africa. Russia can use nuclear energy deals to market a wide range of related services including engineer training, fuel provision, and sales of defensive radar systems to protect key infrastructure.[10] Russia holds a competitive advantage in these fields relative to the U.S. and Europe.[11] Russia is also likely trying to preempt further expansion in the global nuclear energy sector by China.[12] Russia if successful could gain significant leverage over local governments via its role in nuclear energy provision similar to its influence over energy in the Baltics and Eastern Europe. [13]

Rosatom - the state-owned nuclear energy corporation of Russia - approached at least a dozen countries in Africa in 2018. Nigeria confirmed plans for the development of a nuclear power plant by Rosatom in July 2018.[14] Russia has also started initial talks on nuclear energy with Angola.[15] The Kremlin signed memorandums of understanding on atomic energy cooperation with Sudan, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2018 following similar deals with Uganda and Morocco in 2017.[16] Russia already holds deals to finance and build nuclear power plants in Egypt, Turkey, and Hungary.[17]

Russia is also setting conditions for future deals by establishing Nuclear Science and Technology Centers to promote nuclear energy and train workers throughout Africa. Rosatom showcased a planned nuclear research facility at a major trade show in Zambia in August 2018.[18] Russia plans to establish a similar center in Ethiopia.[19] Rosatom similarly held a nuclear power workshop for youth in Kenya in July 2018.[20]

3. The Kremlin is expanding its security cooperation in Africa. Russia signed agreements on military cooperation with Guinea, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Madagascar, and the Central African Republic in 2018.[21] These framework agreements allow for the exchange of counterterrorism resources as well as the training of servicemen from Africa in Russia. Russia and Mozambique agreed to boost their counterterrorism cooperation in March 2018.[22] Russia and the Southern African Development Community signed a memo on military technical cooperation on the sidelines of the BRICS Summit in August 2018.[23]

The Kremlin also pursued additional military sales in Africa in 2018. Russia National Security Council Secretary Nikolai Patrushev and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov both stressed that Russia would like to expand its military cooperation with Algeria – one of the largest buyers of weapons from Russia in Africa - in 2018.[24] The Russia Defense Ministry provided small arms, ammunition, and instructors to the Central African Republic in early 2018. Russia will supply armaments and military training to the DRC[25]. Lavrov later met with Rwandan President Paul Kagame to discuss the delivery of air defense systems to Rwanda in June 2018.[26] Russia reportedly continues to supply weapons to a number of countries across Africa including Egypt, South Africa, Algeria, Mali, and Angola.[27]

4. The Kremlin is pursuing greater access to natural resources in Africa. Russia is currently prioritizing exploration for hydrocarbons and rare minerals in Africa. The Kremlin likely views resource extraction as more cost-effective in Africa than remote regions of Russia. Rosgeologia - a state-owned geological exploration company - signed an agreement with Sudan regarding natural gas in the Red Sea in July 2018.[28] Rosgeologia also signed deals with Madagascar and Algeria in 2018.[29] Gabon offered additional exploration rights to Russian oil company Zarubezhneft in 2018.[30] Mozambique is planning a similar deal on natural gas exploration with Russian oil company Rosneft.[31] Rosneft signed a deal with Libya’s National Oil Corporation in 2017.[32] Russia and Zimbabwe discussed cooperation in the diamond sector including a multi-billion joint project on platinum in March 2018.[33] Russian diamond company Alrosa secured a controlling stake in the largest diamond deposit in Angola in 2017.[34] Russian mining company Nordgold plans to expand its operations in Burkina Faso.[35] Rosatom is also attempting to obtain licenses for uranium exploration in Namibia.[36]

5. Russia is using Private Military Contractors (PMCs) to advance its campaign in Africa. Russian PMCs are training local security forces and supporting the push for mineral resources in Africa. The Russian Embassy in Sudan confirmed the presence of Russian PMCs in Sudan in July 2018.[37] Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir confirmed that "specialists" from Russia hold long-term training contracts for the Sudanese Armed Forces.[38] Russian PMCs likely also use Sudan as a staging area for operations in the Central African Republic (CAR). Russia has confirmed that at least 175 Russians - mostly “civilians” - are deployed to train local security forces in the CAR.[39] These trainers include fighters from the Russian Wagner PMC Group operating in Ukraine, Syria, and Africa.[40] Russia reportedly transfers these fighters from Syria to the CAR via Sudan.[41] The PMCs likely provide protection for resource extraction efforts by Russia. Russia holds concessions to explore for natural resources in the CAR as of March 2018.[42] The Kremlin is reportedly working to establish gold mines and explore for diamonds in the CAR.[43] The PMCs are also acting as political brokers to arrange negotiations between different factions in the CAR on behalf of Russia.[44] The Kremlin leverages PMCs in its global campaigns given their flexibility and the deniability provided to Russia.

6. Russia is expanding exports of its agricultural products to Africa. Russia is trying to enter wheat markets in Algeria, Libya, and Morocco.[45] Algeria - which predominantly imports wheat from France - will accept its first trial shipment of wheat from Russia in 2018.[46] Morocco will also remove its wheat tariff by the end of 2018 as a result of a request from Russia.[47] Russia has already established itself as a major source of imported wheat in Egypt. Russia holds a competitive advantage in wheat due to its lower operating costs.[48]

Results and Implications

The Kremlin has thus far experienced varying degrees of success in Africa. Russia has undoubtedly made significant advances in Africa. However, some of its recent efforts have stumbled. For example, the Kremlin failed to secure a major nuclear energy deal in South Africa that had been agreed upon by Russian President Vladimir Putin and former South African President Jacob Zuma.[49] South Africa withdrew from the deal due to perceived corruption under Zuma. Putin has attempted to resume the talks with no success thus far.[50] Russia is trying to pursue nuclear cooperation with Uganda. China will, however, help Uganda build its nuclear power plants. Russia’s basing aspirations in Africa are also advancing at a very slow pace.[51] Russia has not yet secured its desired naval basing in Egypt, Libya, or Sudan.

The U.S. should watch and be prepared to counterbalance outreach by the Kremlin in Africa. The U.S. has sufficient strategic interests at stake to remain committed to Africa.[52] The Kremlin’s campaign in Africa ultimately supports its grand strategic objective to weaken the U.S. globally and establish a multi-polar world order. Russia could gain strategic positioning on two strategic maritime chokepoints - the Suez Canal and the Bab al-Mandeb Strait. The Kremlin’s actions also have long-term implications for the efficacy of coercive measures such as sanctions and diplomatic pressure on Russia. The Kremlin’s campaign in Africa could ultimately alleviate these pressures to some degree by diversifying its revenue streams and expanding its diplomatic support at the UN. Its economic engagement in Africa will raise the political cost and complexity of potential future sanctions by the West on Russia. There is also a substantial potential for illicit exploitation of natural resources given the generally-weak governance in Africa. The U.S. holds an explicit obligation to care about such exploitation per the Dodd-Frank Act Section 1502, in which the U.S. Congress expressed an interest in protecting against mineral resource exploitation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and other states in Africa. The U.S. also holds an interest in stemming the human rights abuses resulting from the sale of weapons by Russia to hostile regimes in Africa. The Kremlin’s backing of these regime also stands to worsen popular grievances and set favorable conditions for Salafi-Jihadist groups in Africa.[53]

[1] “Rosatom signs contract for small scale hydro facility in the Republic of South Africa,” Rosatom, January 29, 2018, www.rosatom(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/rosatom-signs-contract-for-small-scale-hydro-facility-in-the-republic-of-south-africa.
[2] Genevieve Casagrande, “Russia moves to supplant U.S. role,” Institute for the Study of War, March 22, 2017,
[3] “Russia In Talks With Eritrea To Set Up 'Logistics Center' On Red Sea Coast,” RFERL, September 1, 2018,
[4] “Russia-Eritrea Relations Grow with Planned Logistics Center,” VOA, September 2, 2018,
[5] “Russia, Sudan are discussing naval supply centre, not military base: diplomat,” Sudan Tribune, June 9, 2018, www(.); [“The Russian Navy negotiates to create a logistics center in Sudan,”] Sputnik, September 6, 2018, mundo(.); [“Russian Ambassador appreciates prospects for building a naval base in Sudan,”] RIA Novosti, September 6, 2018, www.ria(.)ru/world/20180609/1522412113.html.
[6] Ciaran McGrath, “Putin flexes muscles with plans for new African base - with chilling echoes of Suez,” Express, April 18, 2018,
[7] [“Fighters of PMC "Wagner" began training at the cottage Prigogine,”] Meduza, July 6, 2018, https://meduza(.)io/feature/2018/07/06/boytsy-chvk-vagner-nachinali-trenirovki-na-dache-prigozhina ; [“In Syria, a new Russian PMC began to fight,”] TV Rain, July 5, 2018, https://tvrain(.)ru/news/patriot-467148/?from=rss.
[8] Emily Estelle, “A Strategy for Success in Libya,” Critical Threats Project, November 2017,
[9] Tom Newton, “Putin Troops in Libya,” The Sun, October 8, 2018,
[10] “Russia to supply radar for protecting nuclear power plant in Pakistan,” TASS, August 30, 2018, www.tass(.)com/defense/1019325.
[11] “The world relies on Russia to build its nuclear power plants,” The Economist, August 2, 2018,
[12] “China to help Uganda build nuclear power plants,” Reuters, May 17, 2018,
[13] Alissa de Carbonnel and Andrius Sytas, “Baltic States to decouple power grids from Russia, link to EU by 2025,” Reuters, June 28, 2018,
[14] Darrell Proctor, “Russia Will Help Nigeria Develop Nuclear Plant,” Power Mag, July 1, 2018,
[15] “Russia discusses African nuclear power prospects,” World Nuclear News, March 8, 2018,
[16] “Press release on Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov’s meeting with Uganda's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Henry Oryem Okello,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, May 22, 2018, www.mid(.)ru/en/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/3230839; “Uganda, Russia enter economic, scientific deal,” Edge, May 26, 2018, https://edge(.)ug/2018/05/26/ uganda-russia-enter-economic-scientific-deal/; [“Rosatom and the Sudan Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity Sign a number of cooperation documents,”] Rosatom, May 16, 2018, https://rosatom(.)ru/journalist/news/rosatom-i-ministerstvo-vodnykh-resursov-irrigatsii-i-elektroenergetiki-sudana-podpisali-ryad-dokumen/; “Russia and Rwanda sign a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in peaceful uses of atomic energy,” Rosatom, June 22, 2018, www.rosatom(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/russia-and-rwanda-signed-a-memorandum-of-understanding-on-cooperation-in-the-field-of-peaceful-uses-/; “Russia and Uganda sign a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in peaceful uses of atomic energy,” Rosatom, June 19, 2017, http://www.rosatom(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/russia-and-uganda-sign-a-memorandum-of-understanding-on-cooperation-in-peaceful-uses-of-atomic-energ/; [“Morocco and Rosatom have signed a cooperation agreement on the peaceful atom,”] TASS, October 11, 2017, www.tass(.)ru/ekonomika/4636660; “Russia and Congo to cooperate in nuclear power,” World Nuclear News, February 14, 2018,; “Russia, Rwanda establish nuclear energy ties,” World Nuclear News, June 27, 2018,
[17] “Hungary and Russia sign agreement on Paks nuclear power plant,” Daily News Hungary, January 14, 2014, https://dailynewshungary(.)com/hungary-and-russia-sign-agreement-on-paks-nuclear-power-plant; “Russia discusses African nuclear power prospects,” World Nuclear News, March 8, 2018,; Nataliya Bugayova and Jack Ulses, “The Kremlin's Campaign in Egypt,” Institute for the Study of War, June 20, 2018,; “Turkey grants Rosatom construction license for first unit of Akkuyu nuclear plant,” Reuters, April 2, 2018,
[18] “Zambia Center for Nuclear Science and Technology premiered at the largest Zambia trade show,” Rosatom, September 30, 2018, www.rosatom(.)ru/en/press-centre/news/zambia-center-for-nuclear-science-and-technology-premiered-at-the-largest-zambia-trade-show/.
[19] “Russia plans to build nuclear facility for Ethiopia,” Borkena, March 4, 2018, www.borkena(.)com/ 2018/03/04/russia-nuclear-facility-ethiopia-mof/.
[20] “Rosatom to host online nuclear power workshop for Kenyan youth,” Biztech Africa, July 7, 2018,
[21] [“Russia has signed an agreement on military cooperation with Burundi,”] RIA Novosti, August 23, 2018, https://ria(.)ru/defense_safety/20180823/1527113792.html; “Russia and Burundi signed an agreement on military cooperation,” Teller Report, August 23, 2018, http://tellerreport(.)com/news/--russia-and-burundi-signed-an-agreement-on-military-cooperation-.Sk0bTjhUQ.html; “Russia and Guinea signs intergovernmental agreement of military cooperation,” Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation,; Daria Mikhalina, [“Russia signed an agreement on military cooperation with Burkina Faso,”] TV Zvezda, August 21, 2018, https://tvzvezda(.)ru/news/forces/content/201808211416-b0cl.htm; “Russia, Madagascar sign agreement on military cooperation,” TASS, October 5, 2018, www.tass(.)com/defense/1024770; “Russia Signs Military Cooperation Deal With Central African Republic,” RFE/RL, August 22, 2018,
[22] Borges Nhamire, “Russia Boosts Military Cooperation With Mozambique After Attacks,” Bloomberg, March 7, 2018,
[23] “Russia boosts military-technical cooperation with southern African countries,” TASS, July 27, 2018, http://tass(.)com/politics/1015066.
[24] [“More confidence: Patrushev in Algeria discussed the joint struggle against terrorism,”], January 1, 2018, https://rg(.)ru/2018/01/31/patrushev-v-alzhire-obsudil-sovmestnuiu-borbu-s-terrorizmom.html; [“Russia intends to develop military-technical cooperation with Algeria,”] TASS, February 19, 2018, https://tass(.)ru/politika/4971531; “Algeria has bought half of the Russian weapons sold in Africa,” Middle East Monitor, July 20, 2018, www.middleeastmonitor(.)com/20180720-algeria-has-bought-half-of-the-russian-weapons-sold-in-africa.
[25] “Russia builds military ties with Africa,” DW, June 1, 2018,
[26] “Rwanda Wants Russia to Sign Deal on Air Defense Systems ASAP – Ambassador,” Sputnik, March 9, 2018, https://sputniknews(.)com/africa/201809031067705026-rwanda-deal-defence/.
[27] Andrew McGregor, “Defense or Domination? Building Algerian Power with Russian Arms,” Eurasia Daily Monitor, September 5, 2018,
[28] [“Rosgeologiya will start exploration on the Sudan shelf in 2019,”] RIA Novosti, November 9, 2018, https://ria(.)ru/economy/20180911/1528257947.html; [“Rosgeology will explore and develop a block on the Red Sea shelf,”] Rosegeology, July 23, 2018, www.rosgeo(.)com/ru/content/rosgeologiya-provedet-razvedku-i-osvoenie-bloka-na-shelfe-krasnogo-morya; “Rosgeologia signs exploration contract with Sudan to explore the Red Sea,” Interfax, July 25, 2018, http://interfaxenergy(.)com/gasdaily/article/31888/ rosgeologia-signs-exploration-contract-with-sudan-to-explore-the-red-sea.
[29] [“Russia and Madagascar will cooperate in the field of mineral exploration,”] RT, May 24, 2018, https://russian.rt(.)com/business/news/516378-rossiya-madagaskar-pmef; [“Russia will cooperate with Madagascar in mineral exploration,”] TASS, May 24, 2018, https://tass(.)ru/pmef-2018/articles/5229718; “Rosgeo steps up cooperation with Algeria,” Rosgeology, July 11, 2018, www.rosgeo(.)com/en/content/ rosgeo-steps-cooperation-algeria.
[30] [“Gabon offers "Zarubezhneft" new fields,”] Tekno Blog, October 16, 2018, https://teknoblog(.)ru/2018/07/15/91030; [“Putin declared that Russia and Gabon can work together on a settlement in the CAR,”] TASS, July 14, 2018, https://tass(.)ru/politika/5374075.
[31] “Mozambique plans to sign gas agreement with Rosneft, ExxonMobil by yearend – Minister Pacheco in Russia,” Club of Mozambique, May 29, 2018, https://clubofmozambique(.)com/news/mozambique-plans-to-sign-gas-agreement-with-rosneft-exxonmobil-by-yearend-minister-pacheco-in-russia/.
[32] Aidan Lewis, “Russia's Rosneft, Libya's NOC sign oil offtake deal,” Reuters, February 21, 2017,
[33] MacDonald Dzirutwe, “Russia seeks military cooperation, diamond, platinum projects in Zimbabwe,” Reuters, March 8, 2018,
[34] “Russia's Alrosa secures stake in Angola's largest diamond deposit,” Reuters, May 23, 2017,
[35] “Nordgold plans to rapidly advance exploration at Burkina Faso mine,” Mining Weekly, May 20, 2018, www.miningweekly(.)com/article/nordgold-plans-to-rapidly-advance-exploration-at-burkina-faso-mine-2018-07-20.
[36] “Russia and Argentina may invest $250 mln in development of uranium deposits,” TASS, January 23, 2018, http://tass(.)com/economy/986523.
[37] “Meeting with President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir,” President of Russia, July 14, 2018, http://en. kremlin(.)ru/events/president/news/57998; [“Putin and Bashir underlined success in military-technical cooperation,”] Facebook, July 16, 2018, www.facebook(.)com/Rusembsudan/posts/2077291532513195
[38] [“Putin and Bashir underlined success in military-technical cooperation,”]; “Meeting with President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir,” President of Russia, July 14, 2018, http://en.kremlin(.)ru/events/president/ news/57998.
[39] “Russian sings military deal with the Central African Republic: agencies,” Reuters, August 21, 2018,
[40] Neil Hauer, “Russia’s Favorite Mercenaries,” The Atlantic, August 27, 2018,
[41] “Russian presence in Central African Republic,” Conflict Intelligence Team, April 23, 2018, https(://)
[42] [“Answer by the Deputy Director of the Information and Press Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation A. A. Kozhin to the media question about the development of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Central African Republic,”] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, March 22, 2018, www.mid(.)ru/ru/foreign_policy/news/-/asset_publisher/cKNonkJE02Bw/content/id/3136399.
[43] “Moscow sets its sights on the gold and diamonds,” Africa Intelligence, July 18, 2018, www.africaintelligence(.)com/lce/business-circles/2018/07/18/moscow-sets-its-sights-on-the-gold-and-diamonds,108317475-art; “Death, Diamonds and Russia’s Africa Project,” Bloomberg, August 4, 2018,
[44] “Russia, Sudan foster deal among Central African Republic militia,” Daily Nation, August 30, 2018, www.nation(.); Jack Losh and Owen Mathews, “Battle for Africa: Russia pushes into ‘Free Country For the Taking’ in Attempt to Rival the West,” Newsweek, August 9, 2018,
[45] “Libya Seeks 1 Mln Tonnes of Russian Wheat, Animal Feed for $700Mln – Minister,” Sputnik, September 30, 2018, https://sputniknews(.)com/africa/201809301068473659-libya-russia-wheat-animal-feed/; “Libya initials agreement for supplying Russian wheat,” The Libya Observer, October 1, 2018, www.libyaobserver(.)ly/inbrief/libya-initials-agreement-supplying-russian-wheat; “Libya to import $700 million worth wheat from Russia,” Libyan Express, October 1, 2018, www.libyanexpress(.)com/libya-to-import-700-million-worth-wheat-from-russia/; [“Morocco abolishes duty on import of Russian wheat,”] Agroxxi, October 5, 2018, www.agroxxi(.)ru/mirovye-agronovosti/marokko-otmenit-poshlinu-na-vvoz-rossiiskoi-pshenicy.html; [“Russia and Morocco discuss economic and technical cooperation,”] Rambler, October 5, 2018, https://news.rambler(.)ru/other/40966053-rossiya-i-marokko-obsudili-ekonomicheskoe-i-tehnicheskoe-sotrudnichestvo/; [“Russia is able to press the US in the market for the supply of grain in Morocco,”] Dairy News, October 5, 2018, www.dairynews(.)ru/news/-rossiya-sposobna-potesnit-ssha-na-rynke-postavok-.html; [“Bloomberg: Russian wheat entering the Algerian market threatens France with a ‘catastrophe’,”] RT, October 3, 2018, https://russian.rt(.)com/inotv/2018-10-03/Bloomberg-vihod-rossijskoj-pshenici-nax; “World crop briefs: Russia makes wheat pitch to Algeria,” Alberta Farmer Express, October 2, 2018, www.albertafarmexpress(.)ca/daily/world-crop-briefs-russia-makes-wheat-pitch-to-algeria; “Algeria is interested in the supplies of Russian wheat,” TASS, September 28, 2018, http://tass(.)com/economy/1023535; “Russia challenges France's grip on Algeria's wheat market,” AgriCensus, October 1, 2018, www.agricensus(.)com/Article/Russia-challenges-France-s-grip-on-Algeria-s-wheat-market-3484.html.
[46] Agnieszka de Sousa and Anatoly Medetsky, “Europe Has Most to Lose from Russia's Expanding Wheat Empire,” Bloomberg, October 2, 2018,
[47] [“Morocco abolishes duty on import of Russian wheat,”] Dairy News, October 4, 2018, www.dairynews(.)ru/news/marokko-otmenit-poshlinu-na-vvoz-rossiyskoy-psheni.html; “Russia asks Morocco to cut wheat import tax to 30% by year end,” UkrAgroConult, September 18, 2018, www.blackseagrain(.)net/novosti/russia-asks-morocco-to-cut-wheat-import-tax-to-30-by-year-end.
[48] James Marson, “Struggling U.S. Farmers Worry About a Resurgent Russia,” Wall Street Journal, September 23, 2018,
[49] Lynsey Chutel, “How two South African women stopped Zuma and Putin’s $76 billion Russian nuclear deal,” Quartz Africa, April 25, 2018, https://qz(.)com/africa/1260877/how-two-south-african-women-stopped-zuma-and-putins-76-billion-nuclear-deal/.
[50] Alexander Winning, “Russia's Putin raises nuclear deal at Ramaphosa meeting during BRICS,” Reuters, July 30, 2018,
[51] “China to help Uganda build nuclear power plants,” Reuters, May 17, 2018,
[52] Emily Estelle, “America Ignores Africa to Its Peril,” The National Interest, July 23, 2018,
[53] Emily Estelle, “A Strategy for Success in Libya,” Critical Threats Project, November 2017,